In most cases, cats urinate while sitting and mark while standing. However, a cat can decide to urinate while standing due to numerous factors. It's a very complex problem. Urination is the emptying of the bladder, and even though the odor contains information, it's not the most prominent function of marking, with which the odor, quantity, height, and marked area give information to other cats, other animals and even humans. Both male and female cats mark and the distinct causes can be determined by a professional.
Often a (young) cat accidentally wets the bed. For example, because the cat was locked up in the bedroom. Sometimes the cat repeats this behavior through a combination of circumstances. In this way, the cat develops a preference for soft surfaces on which to urinate.
The amount of urine, the shape and the smell say something about the possible cause of the uncleanliness. For example, one cat always urinates in the same place in the house, while another cat pees small amounts all over the house..
Litter boxes come in all kinds of shapes and sizes. With and without lid, rectangular, round, the triangular "corner" box, up to and including electric self-cleaning litter boxes. Our preference is not necessarily the preference of the cat.
This also applies to the filling in the litter box. Coarse and fine stones, wood, paper, sand and silica, and all this with or without a flower or baby powder scent.
The location of the litter box can make all the difference, as can the number of boxes. Many cats would like a separate container for poo and pee. If you have several cats, there are several boxes involved!